The Hart-Scott-Rodino Act (HSR), adding Section 7A of the Clayton Act, is listed separately." Statista, "IoT Infrastructure Market by Application in US 2016-2024 | Statistic," https://www.statista.com/statistics/761278/iot-infrastructure-market-by-application-in-us/. Statista, "Smartphone Penetration Worldwide 2014-2021," https://www.statista.com/statistics/203734/global-smartphone-penetration-per-capita-since-2005/. Technological convergence: This occurs when the functions of different technologies are merged and interoperate as a single unit. First, the federal government could continue to allow industry to self-regulate, especially where technology evolves quickly. Emerging smart home technologies may further necessitate safeguarding data from malicious actors. James Manyika et al., "Unlocking the Potential of the Internet of Things," McKinsey and Company, https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/digital-mckinsey/our-insights/the-internet-of-things-the-value-of-digitizing-the-physical-world. 'Technological convergence' is a concept whereby merging, blending, integration, and transformation of independent technologies leads to a completely new converged technology. Non-FCRA covered entities that maintain data for non-marketing purposes that fall outside of the FCRA. Data collection and usage are tied to digital privacy issues because a piece or aggregation of information could identify an individual or reveal patterns in their activities. Technological convergence facilitates increased consumption and collection of data, posing potential digital privacy concerns for consumers. Policy issues may include oversight jurisdictions, regulatory authorities, and commercial competitiveness since a converged technology could fall within multiple domains. Examples include smart lightbulbs, smart electrical outlet plugs, smart TV, and smart appliances. 2. Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA): The COPPA and the FTC's implementing regulations regulate the online collection and use of children's information. In general, such activities are a lawful commercial marketing strategy, from which the customers may benefit in forms of enhanced user experience and discounts. In the present, this is the joining of technology within the human brain, or body, to enable it to communicate with the … As some commentators have observed, ECPA "was designed to regulate wiretapping and electronic snooping rather than commercial data gathering," and litigants attempting to apply ECPA to online data collection have generally been unsuccessful. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA): Under the HIPAA, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has enacted regulations protecting a category of medical information called "protected health information" (PHI). Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA): The GLBA imposes several data protection obligations on financial institutions. How Congress oversees which industries and government agencies may become complicated due to converging technologies that blend existing categorical boundaries. occurs when unrelated technologies or technological paths intersect or 'converge unexpectedly' to create an entirely new field. With each new technology comes a dedicated application of that function in the form of a device. They also existed in separate industries. This could include deciding whether federal entities, such as the FTC, should have their rulemaking abilities clarified or expanded. Data security issues typically involve actors whose intents are malicious, who carry out unlawful activities, and use data in ways that harm an individual. These sources include app developers, websites, and social media.54, Figure 3. There is no one model for the convergence of traditional and information security; it is based currently on the vision of specific people. Converged technologies leverage large volumes of data to try to improve the user experience by generating more tailored and anticipatory results. SECURITY IN THE CONTEXT OF CYBERTECHNOLOGY. Y.H. Data security practices include proactive measures against cyberattacks and responsive measures such as sending notifications to affected individuals upon a data breach. Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA): The CFAA was originally intended as a computer hacking statute and is centrally concerned with prohibiting unauthorized intrusions into computers, rather than addressing other data protection issues such as the collection or use of data. Mª Ángeles Cabrera González. The HIPAA regulations generally speak to covered entities': (1) using or sharing of PHI, (2) disclosure of information to consumers, (3) safeguards for securing PHI, and (4) notification of consumers following a breach of PHI. The mission of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) includes both protecting consumers and promoting business competition.36 Congress may choose to review the FTC's current authorities to ensure that they are sufficient to oversee emerging smart home technologies. Moreover, a smart home may have a doorbell with a video camera and a speaker that allows a user to see who is at the door and to speak to the person at the door from anywhere over the internet. Congress may choose to define the role of the federal government overseeing digital privacy by introducing new comprehensive federal law(s) and/or by determining minimal required standards of digital privacy. Dong Hee Shin, Won-Yong Kim, and Dong-Hoon Lee, "Convergence Technologies and the Layered Policy Model: Implication for Regulating Future Communications," in Annual Meeting (International Communication Association, United States: International Communication Association, 2006), http://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?vid=3&sid=00dd6275-99fe-4a5a-a32d-4ccb6b08620c%40pdc-v-sessmgr03&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#AN=27203990&db=ufh. Convergence removes such pairing (i.e., "decouples") between media, network, and device.9 Decoupling gives convergence its versatility, flexibility, and complexity. A discussion of technological convergence in isolation is difficult because technological convergence is closely associated with media convergence and network convergence. In addition, the thermostat, lights, electrical outlets, and appliances in a smart home may be remotely controlled by a user over the internet. But, these activities become an issue when they lack transparency (i.e., when customers are not aware of what information is collected on them, who shares the information with whom, and how the information is used and for what purpose). New devices and technology usually handle one medium or accomplish some basic tasks; through technological convergence, devices can interact with a wider array of media types. This may require a complete overhaul of the technology regulatory framework, requiring congressional action and a relatively lengthy adaptation timeline for the affected industries. With relatively few policies in place for specifically overseeing technological convergence, Congress may consider potential policy options to address the issues discussed in this report. Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA): The FERPA creates privacy protections for student education records. Data security defends against illicit activities such as theft of data. wide rage of computers and communication devices. Third, data security concerns are often associated with smart devices’ convenient ubiquitous features that may double as vulnerabilities exploited by malicious actors. This is because (1) the one-to-one relationship between a converging technology and a regulatory entity is no longer clear, and (2) a converging technology may create a new sector where a regulatory entity has not been identified. The VPPA does not have any data security provisions requiring entities to maintain safeguards to protect consumer information from unauthorized access. What is “technological convergence” in the context of cyber technology? The globalization, the opening up of trade barriers, this era of media convergence, the popularity of the internet, and the ever increasing number of netizens has revolutionized the sports industry. Enacted in 2010 as Title X of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the CFPA created the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) as an independent agency within the Federal Reserve System. Privacy Rights Clearinghouse, "Data Brokers," https://www.privacyrights.org/data-brokers. Regulating a converging technology, which is a result of blending or integrating multiple technologies, can be challenging. Regulating a converged technology as a whole can also be challenging because the combinations of technologies may generate too many possible outcomes. (Minimum word count: 55)2. Additional information on Do Not Call or Do Not Track can be found in CRS Report R45070, Protecting Consumers and Businesses from Fraudulent Robocalls, by Patricia Moloney Figliola. The IoT possess all three characteristics of converged technologies: multiple functions, data collection and use, and ubiquitous access. New Cybersecurity Technologies: What is Shaking Up the Field? Because data are not stored in a single, fixed, isolated location, and can be accessed from anywhere, cloud storage gives the impression of storing data on a non-concrete, flexible, fluid, mobile "cloud.". (Minimum word count: 55)7. Today numerous large, well-resourced companies are getting hacked despite the best efforts from cyber security specialists on a daily basis. Technological convergence has become a very crucial component in the changes to the film industry. Second, converged devices can collect and use data in various formats and employ machine learning techniques to deliver enhanced user experience. Technological convergence poses three potential data security concerns: increased number of access points susceptible to cyberattacks, linkage to physical security, and theft of data. IoT Agenda, "What Is Internet of Things (IoT)?—Definition from WhatIs.Com," https://internetofthingsagenda.techtarget.com/definition/Internet-of-Things-IoT. Statista, "Smartphone Penetration United States 2017-2023 | Statistic," https://www.statista.com/statistics/201184/percentage-of-mobile-phone-users-who-use-a-smartphone-in-the-us/. They were not necessarily developed with merging or interoperability in mind. Selected categories of IoT devices are discussed below. Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA): The FCRA covers the collection and use of information bearing on a consumer's creditworthiness. As we proceed with cybertechnology research and development in the twenty-first century, continued technological convergence would seem to be inevitable. Name: Date: 26 August 2018 ITMG481 Week 8 Assignment (3% of Grade) APUS/Yocam … How is it different from conventional or traditional computing? Second, Congress and the Administration could maintain current regulatory jurisdiction but leverage a deconfliction or harmonization policy so that convergent technologies are regulated under one primary authority instead of potentially multiple authorities. Second, converged technologies collect and use personal and machine data which may raise digital privacy concerns for consumers. Kathy asked, "What is the meaning of in the context of?". There are two versions of this. Convergence is the coming together of two different entities, and in the contexts of computing and technology, is the integration of two or more different technologies in a single device or system. Data security is an aspect of cybersecurity more so than privacy. Abstract. Included in this categories are smart appliances, smart TV, smart entertainment systems, smart thermostats, and network-connected light bulbs, outlets, door locks, door bells, and home security systems.32 These smart home IoT devices are connected to a single network and can be controlled remotely over the internet. Not implementing strong encryption may be intentional due to associated benefits—it usually keeps the cost low, increases battery life of devices, minimizes memory requirements, reduces device size, and is easier to use or implement. The Communications Act: The Communications Act of 1934 (Communications Act or Act), as amended, established the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and provides a "comprehensive scheme" for the regulations of interstate communication. Regulating technological convergence may entail policies for jurisdictional deconfliction, harmonization, and expansion to address blended or new categories of technology. Identify three kinds of ethical issues associated with bioinformatics. Such data can also potentially be sold to third-party entities without an individual’s awareness. Cybersecurity and physical security are directly linked through converged technologies. Why do some converging technologies raise special ethical and social issues? This has led to the integration of all media. Similar to the digital privacy considerations, Congress could begin by determining whether overarching legislation for data security is necessary. Additional information on foreign government policies, such as EU's GDPR and China's Security First can be found in CRS Report R45584, Data Flows, Online Privacy, and Trade Policy, by Rachel F. Fefer. As technological convergence continues to proliferate, more data will likely be generated and consumed. Technological convergence is defined as ‘the process by which two hitherto different industrial sectors come to share a common knowledge and technological base’ (Athreye and Keeble, … Statista, "Global Smartphone Revenue 2011-2018 | Statistic," https://www.statista.com/statistics/687476/global-smartphone-revenues/. 3. The complexities in setting regulatory jurisdiction can be further subdivided into regulating converging technologies and regulating evolving technology companies. However, these technology convergence companies may not be required to follow state and local regulations as traditional home security companies that provide monitored security service do.40. This also means that different data security protocols apply to different types of data. technologies that have resulted from technological divergence: commercial intelligence, informatics, … Consistent performance on the same network: Network convergence allows all network services—voice, data, video—to be delivered over the same network with consistent performance. The current state, challenges, and recent legislative activities are discussed. The VPPA does not empower any federal agency to enforce violations or the Act and there are no criminal penalties for violations, but it does provide for a private right of action for persons aggrieved by the Act. The process or results may reveal aspects of an individual that were unexpected. Despite a wide range of applications, smart converged technologies share key characteristics. It’s examined that the computing/information and communication technologies are the part of technological convergence that resulted cyber technological changes. Question 14 of 20 0.25 Points What is “technological convergence” in the context of cyber-technology? Phishing refers to general attempts by malicious actors to deceive victims to steal sensitive personal information such as credit card or financial information, passwords, and account credentials. Why do some converging technologies raise special ethical and social issues? First, convergence of technologies blend and blur existing categorical distinctions for each technology because a converged technology can perform multiple functions. Convergence … (Minimum word count: 55). Federal Trade Commission Act (FTC Act): The FTC Act has emerged as a critical law relevant to data privacy and security. What, exactly, do we mean by “computer security” and “cybersecurity”? They are discussed below. Technological convergence is the process by which existing technologies merge into new forms that bring together different types of media and applications. As the use of converged technologies continues to propagate, digital privacy issues will likely remain central. Statista, "IoT Subsystems Revenue Worldwide 2012-2018 | Statistic," https://www.statista.com/statistics/503466/iot-subsystems-revenue-worldwide/. The IoT encompasses a broad range of applications. Merging and integrating multiple technologies from distinct functional categories into one converged technology pose challenges to regulatory policies and responsibilities. 41 et seq.) The connected cities category, or smart cities, was the largest (41%) of 2018 global IoT revenue. Examples of data privacy issues include mobile apps and websites collecting and using an individual's online activity and location data to suggest targeted ads. 1. Congress may decide that new or expanded policies are necessary to protect consumer digital privacy, including personal data that are collected and used by smart home devices, such as a smart TV, in private spaces, such as a user's home. Smart devices can execute multiple functions to serve blended purposes; Smart devices can collect and use data in various formats and employ machine learning algorithms. Technological convergence, also known as digital convergence, is the tendency for technologies that were originally unrelated to become more closely integrated and even unified as they develop and … An example may be delineating the Federal Communications and Commission's (FCC) and the FTC's authorities on convergence technologies as more devices and services become mobile and wirelessly connected.39. Federal Trade Commission, "Data and Visualizations," October 15, 2018, https://www.ftc.gov/enforcement/data-visualizations. When a converged technology utilizes differing communications technologies, it may be required to adhere to multiple standards and regulations. Market size is different from revenue. Andrew Meola, "IoT for Utilities: Smart Water, Gas and Electric Utilities Coming Soon," Business Insider, https://www.businessinsider.com/internet-of-things-utilities-water-electric-gas-2016-10. This is what's known in business terms as "company's culture." We do not see convergence in all countries. A challenge for Congress may be in delineating which government agency has jurisdiction over various converged technologies. Privacy implications arise when personal information is compromised during a data security incident. Figure 1 illustrates relationships between technological, media, and network convergences. Increased connectivity generally translates to increased risk of cyberattack.55 Converged technologies, such as IoT devices, offer the users ubiquitous access: access from anywhere, at any time, using any device. Data makes that possible. In contrast, general consumers may not have the same level of engagement or understanding of media and network convergences, as they often occur in the background. A virtual assistant is a platform that can manage and relay information to smart home devices based on user-established criteria. The IoT is a system of interrelated devices that transfer data over a network among connected devices without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction. Jennifer Valentino-DeVries et al., "Your Apps Know Where You Were Last Night, and They're Not Keeping It Secret," New York Times, December 10, 2018, sec. Examples include breaking into a database or sending spear phishing emails to steal identity and financial information.46 Stolen identity and financial information are often exploited, causing financial damage to individuals and businesses. Data security is protection of data from unauthorized or malicious actors. The Act gives the FTC jurisdiction over most individuals and entities, although there are several exemptions. Technological convergence may present a range of issues where Congress may take legislative and/or oversight actions. Vitals and health data collected by fitness tracking wearable IoT devices. Ethics and Technology, 5th Edition, by Herman Tavani introduces students to issues and controversies that comprise the relatively new field of cyberethics. (Minimum word count: … It is here that master entrepreneurs and their teams must see beyond the immediate implications of a given technology, capturing second-order, Google-sized business opportunities on the horizon. The findings of this study indicate that though there is not a complete convergence between technology and sexuality, there However, "ECPA's three acts also contain privacy obligations relevant to non-governmental actors. 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