In his criticism of the legal theory of rights he has said that it does not offer an “adequate philosophy”. Thus, according to Marx: "Security is the supreme social concept of bourgeois society, the concept of the police, the whole society exists only to ensure each of its members the preservation of his person, his rights and his property." Many countries of the West have introduced social insurance schemes and these have considerably extended the rights of citizens. The three organs of government are under the control of the powerful class and they work at its behest. So far as the theory of rights is concerned, Barker’s view is not conceptually different from that of Laski. The assertions by 18th century philosophers that natural rights are self-evident truths, he argues, are necessarily false as there are no such things as self-evident truths. A government that is able to protect every person's right absolutely and equally is a utopian aspiration, but the Declaration couches it as the conditions for its legitimacy. In the classless society the inequality or the superior and inferior ability of persons is to be recognised. The state, factories and other organisations provide medical benefits to its citizens and these have alleviated the risks of sickness. The individuals of today’s world enjoy the rights to be protected from unemployment and age. Every citizen will have liberty to enjoy rights and he will allow others to follow him. They lack meaning because if everyone has, for example, unbounded liberty, there is nothing precluding them from using that liberty to impinge on the liberty of another. All people who work should benefit equally from their labor. The classic statement of Marx is “Right can never be higher than the economic structure of society and its cultural development conditioned thereby”. Their main concern is political rights, irrespective of economic problems. Citizenship is generally defined as an ability to contribute to the progress of state. There is another aspect of this issue. The central theme of the legal theory of rights is that they completely depend upon the institutions and recognition of state. If we want a comprehensive system of rights and its realisation, it is argued, the responsibility shall be vested in the state. My duty to be tolerant towards the other effectively means that I should not get too close to him or her, not intrude into his space—in short, that I should respect his intolerance towards my over-proximity. Marxist theory is understood. [35] In stating that “the pretended right of these theorists are all extremes; and in a proportion as they are metaphysically true, they are morally and politically false”,[32] Burke identified that abstract rights are meaningless without a societal framework: What is the use of discussing a man’s abstract right to food or medicine? There is nothing eternal in this changing world. Between Equal Rights: A Marxist Theory of International Law. It is a fact that the role of the state is not above suspicion and criticism but on this account it should not be debarred from playing its role. Marx and Engles have not allotted an exclusive place for the detailed analysis of rights, but they were quite conscious of the condition of various rights as it prevailed in bourgeois society. ... according to the Declaration of the Rights of Man of 1791: Liberty, therefore, is the right to do everything that harms no one else. If we think over the matter seriously we shall find that this approach is neither liberal nor socialist, but combines the elements of both. But the Marxist view of right suffers from ambivalence. “But if the coercion-less cooperative society fails to materialise and the legal system which could, in principle, embody positive expressions of human rights is abolished, there is little prospect that the individual will be protected against the invasions of the state”. [60] MacIntyre criticises the concept of human rights in After Virtue and he famously asserts that “there are no such rights, and belief in them is one with belief in witches and in unicorns.”[61], MacIntyre argues that every attempt at justifying the existence of human rights has failed. Marxist feminists have extended traditional Marxist analysis by looking at domestic labour as well as wage work. A man has no right to do whatever he likes. Again, once an individual has been awarded the status of citizenship he has legal claims to right. Marxism defends the unity of peoples across all gender and sexual lines in the fight against the oppressive capitalist system. In the drive for profit, the capitalist class must intensify the exploitation of the proletariat. [70], The references used may be made clearer with a different or consistent style of, Page ranges should be limited to one or two pages when possible. [42] This was a problem because; All government… is founded on compromise and barter. The state has a positive role to play. Paul, Miller, Paul (2001): Arnhart, Larry. To participate in the affairs of the state is an important political right and every citizen must have this right. "The Contradiction Between Soviet and American Human Rights Doctrine: Reconciliation Through Perestroika and Pragmatism." 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